GLOBAL SUB-PRIME CRISIS

BANKILEAKS

Click on our Secret Library of Evidence ------>

    BANKILEAKS Secret Library

Loan Application Forms (LAF's)  

    Bank Emails to Brokers  

    Then Click on 'VIEW NOTEBOOK'

Join us on facebook
 

facebook3           facebook2 

BFCSA
MORTGAGE
DISTRESS SOS

What BFCSA Does...

BFCSA investigates fraud involving lenders, spruikers and financial planners worldwide.  Full Doc, Low Doc, No Doc loans, Lines of Credit and Buffer loans appear to be normal profit making financial products, however, these loans are set to implode within seven years.  For the past two decades, Ms Brailey, President of BFCSA (Inc), has been a tireless campaigner, championing the cause of older and low income people around the Globe who have fallen victim to banking and finance scams.  She has found that people of all ages are being targeted by Bankers offering faulty lending products. BFCSA warn that anyone who has signed up for one of these financial products, is in grave danger of losing their home.

Visitors

Articles View Hits
487293

Whistleblowers' Corner!

To all mortgage brokers, BDMs and loan approval officers! 
Pls Call Denise: 0401 642 344 

"Confidentiality is assured."

Cartoon Corner

Lighten your load today and "Laugh all the way to the bank!"

Denise Brailey

Led by award-winning consumer advocate Denise Brailey, BFCSA (Inc) are a group of people who are concerned about the appalling growth of Loan Fraud around the world. BFCSA (Inc) is a not for profit organisation in the spirit of global community concern and justice.

Click on the Cluster Map.

  • Home
    Home This is where you can find all the blog posts throughout the site.
  • Categories
    Categories Displays a list of categories from this blog.
  • Bloggers
    Bloggers Search for your favorite blogger from this site.
  • Login
    Login Login form
Denise

Denise

Denise Brailey has dedicated the past 20 years of her life to being a Consumer Advocate - a voice for the people and former President of RECA (Real Estate Consumer Association. She has helped thousands of investors and is currently President of the BFCSA (Banking & Finance Consumers Support Association). Denise was also awarded and presented with the Rona Oakley Award for Consumer Protection in 2010.
What do the Government expect the people want when this has been topical for more than 2 years? Most Australians want banking royal commission – Guardian Essential poll Katherine Murphy Tuesday 28 November 2017 04.00 AEDT Last modified on Tuesday 28 November 2017 07.09 AEDT https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2017/nov/27/most-australians-want-banking-royal-commission-guardian-essential-poll?utm_term=Autofeed&CMP=twt_b-gdnnews#link_time=1511820502 A majority of Australians would support a royal commission into the banks, with this week’s Guardian Essential poll showing 64% in favour, including 62% of Coalition supporters. With Barnaby Joyce holding out the prospect that the Nationals might formally support an inquiry into the banks when the party room meets next week, and with dissident parliamentary numbers for the proposal building, the new poll finds public support for a banking royal commission has stayed constant for two years. Support is highest among Labor voters at 72%, and people intending to vote for someone other than the major parties (71%), but there is also clear majority...
Last modified on
Hits: 183 0 Comments
Rate this blog entry:
0
Continue reading
PM says 'NO' to clamp on property scams By John Garnaut January 5, 2004 Print this article Email to a friend http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2004/01/04/1073151212457.html?from=storyrhs The Howard Government has rejected calls for new national laws to crack down on get-rich-quick property investment schemes. Weeks after the collapse of Henry Kaye's property investment empire, a senior adviser to Prime Minister John Howard has told a consumer group it is up to the states to regulate property investment advice. Despite receiving hundreds of complaints about Mr Kaye, regulators are yet to lay any charges in the case, saying there are no laws under which he could be prosecuted. Macquarie Bank's head of banking and property, Bill Moss, has warned that the problem of real estate scams was larger than many people understood and the Federal Government should not avoid responsibility. His warning followed separate calls from the Australian Securities and Investments Commission, the head of the...
Last modified on
Hits: 174 0 Comments
Rate this blog entry:
0
Continue reading
These banks have all been caught out using shonky algorithms......looks to me as if they now are controlling postcode areas where people can buy a home....it’s just disgraceful. Beware of the TOP UPS & LOCs!!!  Beware of CBA!   CBA announces major lending changes 28 November 2017 Martin North http://www.digitalfinanceanalytics.com/blog/cba-announces-major-lending-changes/     CBA has today revealed a raft of changes including LVR caps and restrictions to rental income for serviceability that will impact mortgage brokers and their clients from next week. On Saturday (2 December) CBA will introducing a new Home Loan Written Assessment document called the Credit Assessment Summary (CAS) for all owner occupied and investment home loan and line of credit applications solely involving personal borrowers. “These changes further strengthen our responsible lending commitments related to the capture and documentation of customer information,” the bank said. “The CAS will present a summary of the information you provided on behalf...
Last modified on
Hits: 171 0 Comments
Rate this blog entry:
0
Continue reading
The Greens are right to oppose ‘fake’ banking Inquiry By Unconventional Economist in Australian banks, Australian Politics at 8:40 am on November 29, 2017 | 1 comment By Leith van Onselen https://www.macrobusiness.com.au/2017/11/greens-right-oppose-fake-banking-inquiry/ Yesterday, it was revealed that the banking Commission of Inquiry (basically the same as a Royal Commission) being pursued by the Nationals was fake, with a whole bunch of key areas of banking malfeasance likely to be omitted from investigation: Under the government backbencher’s proposal, the inquiry could elect to skirt any matters currently before the courts and others under investigation by government regulators and law enforcement agencies. That might curtail the inquiry’s ambit considerably and might rule out evidence from known victims of poor financial advice whose grievances are still subject to legal action or formal investigations. Weaknesses in anti-money laundering compliance at several banks might also be a no-go zone for the commission of inquiry because of...
Last modified on
Hits: 155 0 Comments
Rate this blog entry:
0
Continue reading
Nationals are too little too late re Banking inquiry as another Nationals MP vows to cross floor Nationals fear an election is looming SOON.  They are politically manacled to the Coalition.  Nats harbour a loathing of Labor.  This is all about the possible annihilation of the Nationals and nothing to do with the victims.  They had their chance to back Bill Shorten and cross the floor on a full blown Royal Commission a year ago and failed to raise a hand against Turnbull.  The ONLY REASON that Turnbull is running the Nation is because of the Nationals.  Nats have backed Turnbull and the Banks as their major political benefactor whilst two million families have been suffering from MORTGAGE FRAUD.  BFCSA cannot in good conscience back this insane idea of the Katter Commission of Inquiry.  Sco Mo has to fund it and he will make sure if pushed into an awkward situation...
Last modified on
Hits: 375 0 Comments
Rate this blog entry:
0
Continue reading
Royal commission into banking: The inquiry that could kill the Government By business editor Ian Verrender http://www.abc.net.au/news/2017-11-27/how-bad-are-our-banks/9194984   The onslaught has begun. The television ads are in overdrive, the tame media commentators are barking and even the bankers themselves are putting on a parade, gracing as they did the stage at a "summit" last Thursday. And all within a week since rumblings from Coalition members threatening a private members bill to bring on a royal commission into banking. Those bloated profits from our financial institutions, they benefit all of us, we're told in soothing tones by reassuringly ordinary looking Aussies staring benignly from our television screens because, let's face it, we all own bank shares through our superannuation. It's always handy to throw in a few threats for good measure. As for a royal commission, well, if you believe the bankers, the real losers will be you and me because it will push...
Last modified on
Hits: 290 0 Comments
Rate this blog entry:
Continue reading
‘It’s disturbing’: One in seven homeowners with a mortgage have no buffer saved The reason:  Sub Prime IO Loan borrowers were given two years Buffer Loans to have "spare" debt to pay payments with and thereby the banks were able to mask the UNAFFORDABILITY.  These people had no savings buffer when they borrowed with Bankers preying on that vulnerability.  After two years the banks added a further $50,000 "Top Up" to keep payments flowing to prop up the RMBS products. Is it any wonder we need an urgent Royal Commission into the entire banking and Finance Sector?   One in seven homeowners would be unable to meet mortgage repayments if they were to lose their job, according a survey of homeowners. The survey by Canstar revealed that 43 per cent of borrowers have fewer than three months’ worth of repayments saved to cope with unexpected changes to their financial situation.    ...
Last modified on
Hits: 229 0 Comments
Rate this blog entry:
Continue reading
BFCSA Members Insist on a Royal Commission into Banking and an election call from the Turnbull Government......until that happens we can expect daily turmoil in banking and finance and plenty of civil unrest.   Federal treasurer Scott Morrison is a disgrace! Australians from all States have made their wishes known but the arrogant members of the LNP will stop at nothing to prevent a Royal Commission into the Banking and Finance Sector! BFCSA Members have campaigned for an RC for well over a decade and finally in April 2016 Labor agreed that if they win Federal Government, we will all benefit from the truth. At least Bill Shorten and his team have stuck by their promise.   Meanwhile, ScoMo and APRA are desperately suggesting that banks settle their own cases. Non-one wants another bleedin' Inquiry which will be interfered with by Bankers and their lawyers. Have you noticed how, thanks...
Last modified on
Hits: 227 0 Comments
Rate this blog entry:
Continue reading
THE leaked letter from LNP Senator. Peter McNamee - an LNP Branch President is a MUST READ. See link below. It was sent to Malcolm Turnbull. Every politician on both sides knows what is going on. BFCSA campaigned for 17 years for a Royal Commission into the Major Banks. Our evidence to the Senate 8th Aug 2012 was enough to lead us all down the path of demanding a full blown Royal Commission. Abbott and Turnbull were both part of the 2002 Cover UP Plan for banks to lower lending standards and treating all Australians with contempt.   Turnbull's support of bankers over bank victims will ensure the demise of the LNP at the next election. Turnbull is snubbing the people who drive the economy and provide goods, services and jobs. These people Farmers, business people are seen as cannon fodder to be milked, drained & abused by Big Banks...
Last modified on
Recent comment in this post - Show all comments
  • Duped
    Duped says #
    What a "leaked Letter" to Turnbull. This must put the pressure squarely on the shoulders of the Prime Minister, the same PM who i
Hits: 291 1 Comment
Rate this blog entry:
Continue reading
Banking royal commission snub could fuel 'wipe-out' at next election, grassroots Liberal warns Well they can bank on that one!!! ScoMo said NO Dutton said YES Bishop said NO Some of the back benchers say YES BIG MALCOLM SAYS NO NO NO "LABOR WILL LEAD ON THIS ISSUE...." Of course they have since 4th April 2016.  The only party that cared about victims of mortgage fraud.....and every other Banking Scandal!!! LNP says its better not to upset the Bad behaving Bankers LABOR says its better to have fairness for consumers who are experiencing financial ruin, and unable to fight these big banks on their own.      The Prime Minister has received an ominous warning from the head of a blue-ribbon New South Wales Liberal Party branch, calling on him to capitulate and establish a royal commission into the banks or face the issue contributing to a "wipe-out" at the next election....
Last modified on
Hits: 266 0 Comments
Rate this blog entry:
Continue reading
John Howard slams bank inquiry as 'rank socialism Nov 23 2017 at 2:17 PM Updated Nov 23 2017 at 2:17 PM James Eyres     http://www.afr.com/news/economy/monetary-policy/john-howard-slams-bank-inquiry-as-rank-socialism-20171122-gzr395   Howard has urged the Nationals to dump their plans for a commission of inquiry into the banks, describing the move as one of "rank socialism". Former Prime Minister John Howard has urged the Nationals to dump their plans for a commission of inquiry into the banks, describing the move as one of "rank socialism" which will only destabilise the government. In an interview with Sky News to mark Friday being the 10th anniversary of losing government to Kevin Rudd, Mr Howard said he could understand the Nationals were upset about the outcome of the same-sex marriage vote but that was no reason to take it out on the banks. "I would be staggered if the Coalition proposes a bank royal commission, that is rank...
Last modified on
Hits: 464 0 Comments
Rate this blog entry:
Continue reading
John Howard is terrified of a Royal Commission. Have you noticed?   BFCSA Members have.   HOWARD is covering up for the banking conspiracy he generated in 2002. Howard and Peter Costello, commissioned the MRC report to be written with the assistance of Mark Bouris, John Symonds, Chris Joye and a few other financial "gurus." So who was Chairman? Our current PM Malcolm Turnbull former CEO Goldman Sachs.   CBA refusing to appropriately deal with Consumer Complaints. Right now. CBA should ask Westpac how complaint handling has changed to assist consumers rather than beat them up. NAB and ANZ are just learning compliant handling skills, knowing a Royal Commission is inevitable. Narev CBA still content with throwing complaints into the dustbin and launching well earned abuse at Howard and the regulators!!!   So DO YOU THINK WE NEED A ROYAL COMMISSION into Banks and Regulators?   This will be the...
Last modified on
Hits: 782 0 Comments
Rate this blog entry:
Continue reading
Treasurer Scott Morrison calls in the banks amid backbench push for royal commission Scotty, 2 million families have IO Loans and about to lose the very home they owned outright four years ago!!!  You say they have issues?  BFCSA Members call this catastrophic issue……………………………Your Leader and Government is BENT on not having a proper full blown Royal Commission into Banks and all Regulators.  WHY IS THAT?  Stop flopping around and wake up!  STEP ONE: Identify the real issue.  You want to talk?  You know my number.  First you need to learn how to Google and not doodle.   Treasurer Scott Morrison will call in Australia's banks on Thursday in a bid to head off a backbench push for a banking royal commission. "For some years now I've been talking to the banks about resolving some legacy cases where people have had issues," he said. RELATED ARTICLES 'A strike against the PM,...
Last modified on
Hits: 226 0 Comments
Rate this blog entry:
0
Continue reading
Barnaby Joyce plunged into controversy over $40,000 cheque from Gina Rinehart    Barnaby Joyce has handed back a $40,000 award from billionaire supporter Gina Rinehart, after an embarrassing backlash from political opponents and the farming industry. Key points: Barnaby Joyce was handed a cheque for $40,000 at the AWM last night Now he says he'll hand it back Labor wants the PM, who is acting as Agriculture Minister while Mr Joyce contests a by-election, to answer questions The mining and cattle baron bestowed the lucrative prize on Mr Joyce at a glitzy agriculture event put on by her company Hancock Prospecting at the Australian War Memorial last night. With less than two weeks until the former agriculture minister faces a by-election in his seat of New England, Mr Joyce skipped a local candidates forum in the electorate and travelled to Canberra for the festivities. Mrs Rinehart personally handed him the inaugural...
Last modified on
Hits: 262 0 Comments
Rate this blog entry:
0
Continue reading
APRA financial crisis powers re BAIL-IN, attacked by Citizens Electoral Council Australian Financial Review Nov 20 2017 11:00 PM James Eyers  APRA plans to suggest Bail IN, to BAIL OUT THE BANKS??  Will Banks need a Taxpayer Bail Out in order to survive after ripping off $1 Trillion in assets off poorer customers? A Senate committee will examine concerns raised by fringe political party the Citizens Electoral Council of Australia that a bill expanding the Australian Prudential Regulation Authority's financial crisis powers may allow it to commandeer customer deposits. The Senate economics legislation committee said last week it would look into the Financial Sector Legislation Amendment (Crisis Resolution Powers and Other Measures) Bill 2007 [sic!] and take submissions until December 18. This came after the Citizens Electoral Council, which has been campaigning for many years on protecting depositors from regulatory "bail-in", began contacting MPs in recent weeks to express concerns about whether the bill could compromise...
Last modified on
Hits: 298 0 Comments
Rate this blog entry:
0
Continue reading
Malcolm Turnbull delays Parliament amid banking commission push Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull has taken the unusual step of delaying  Parliament for a week, a move Labor and some crossbenchers have described as an “attack on democracy”. Leader of the House Christopher Pyne said on Monday the House of Representatives would resume on December 4, rather than November 27, because the Senate was unlikely to pass same-sex marriage legislation until November 30. But Labor likened the move as befitting a dictatorship, claiming the government was seeking to avoid a vote on a banking royal commission, amid a possible rebellion from Nationals MPs over the issue while Barnaby Joyce and John Alexander are absent from Parliament. “I think this is the sort of thing that happens in dictatorship,” Deputy Labor Leader Tanya Plibersek told Sky News. “When Parliament becomes inconvenient the government suspends democracy. “It is outrageous and it is unacceptable.” Tanya Plibersek says the move is...
Last modified on
Hits: 288 0 Comments
Rate this blog entry:
0
Continue reading
Banks prepare for parliamentary inquiry     Clancy Yeates   CONTACT VIA EMAIL   FOLLOW ON GOOGLE PLUS   FOLLOW ON TWITTER NOVEMBER 20 2017 The country's biggest banks appear resigned to the prospect of a high-powered inquiry sooner or later, and are making preparations to minimise the disruption on their businesses. With Nationals senator Barry O'Sullivan working on a private member's bill that could pave the way for a parliamentary inquiry into the banks, the big four have been planning how to handle a possible royal commission for some time, including by seeking external legal advice. Lenders are also drawing on their experience handling the recent flood of other inquiries into the industry, in an attempt to contain the impact of a royal commission on their businesses. Given banks have in recent years faced a string of inquiries, a new tax, and tougher laws to hold executives to account, one big four bank source said the mood within the bank was not so much...
Last modified on
Hits: 383 0 Comments
Rate this blog entry:
0
Continue reading
Bank regulator hints at high loan-to-income mortgage crackdown The banking regulator is warning that household debt remains too high and that Australia's debt binge is on a dangerous trajectory in an era of record low interest rates. Key points: High loan-to-income mortgages are more prevalent than in other similar countries, such as the UK and Ireland APRA focusing on large loans to borrowers leaving them with little after tax income to pay other expenses Regulator has already cracked down on interest-only and investor home loans with growth limits and caps   Australian Prudential Regulation Authority (APRA) chairman Wayne Byres pointed to an environment of "heightened risk" as the banking watchdog ramps up its monitoring of responsible bank lending. "Household indebtedness is high. Perhaps more importantly, the trajectory is clearly for it to rise further," Mr Byres told a business conference in Sydney. "Lenders need to be vigilant to ensure their policies...
Last modified on
Hits: 195 0 Comments
Rate this blog entry:
0
Continue reading
Here we go again!!!   NATs are trying to misrepresent to the public they are for a ROYAL COMMISSION into the BANKS.  Then read the first para and you know they are still promoting the limp lettuce watered down version known as the PC, where examiners will be Parliamentarians and not trained and expert QC’s.  The Natters must be dreading the next federal election.  If the NATS continue to lie to the people they will be annihilated.    We the aggrieved consumers, want  a FULL BLOWN ROYAL COMMISSION and above all we want THE TRUTH.  The Nutters Alliance: PHON, NATS, Katter - all singing from same tattered song sheet.  85% of all loans written are SUB PRIME and they say we do not need an RC????  The Nutters keep on "pondering!" See their notes that they are "unsure if they need to examine the past!"  The Nutters have no idea the Bankers are...
Last modified on
Hits: 304 0 Comments
Rate this blog entry:
0
Continue reading
The public should be ‘shocked, dismayed and disgusted’ at the major banks "Only a royal commission into banking regulation will break this vicious circle."     November 16, 2017 Pat McConnell https://theconversation.com/the-public-should-be-shocked-dismayed-and-disgusted-at-the-major-banks-87319 The Australian public should be dismayed and disgusted that the major banks are still attempting to cover up the extent of their complicity in manipulating the Bank Bill Swap Rate (BBSW), a key interest rate benchmark. For years, the banks covered up the involvement of their traders in manipulating not only interest rate but also foreign exchange benchmarks, by attempting to outspend the corporate regulator, ASIC, in the courts, using shareholders’ money. Faced with publication of the evidence they caved in at the very last minute to settle with ASIC, paying even more shareholders’ funds, for fines and legal costs. Has any director or senior manager taken personal responsibility, or even apologised, for either the rampant misconduct or the...
Last modified on
Hits: 237 0 Comments
Rate this blog entry:
0
Continue reading
NAB flags anti-money laundering 'weaknesses' National Australia Bank says it is investigating "issues" relating to its compliance with anti-money laundering and counter-terrorist financing laws, pointing to shortcomings in some transaction monitoring. In its annual report, published on Tuesday, NAB included a contingent liability for potential costs from a project that has been in train since July last year to "strengthen" its program for complying with anti-money laundering and counter-terrorist financing laws. These laws are enforced by Austrac, the financial intelligence regulator, which is alleging a mass breach by the Commonwealth Bank. NAB's document only gave limited detail, but revealed there had been shortcomings in its "know your customer" systems, which are used by banks to check customers' identities. It also pointed to "issues" in its transaction monitoring in some parts of the bank. RELATED ARTICLES 'I am sorry': CBA boss apologises for ATM scandal CBA investors warned over foreign fine risk "The group is currently investigating and remediating a number of...
Last modified on
Hits: 265 0 Comments
Rate this blog entry:
0
Continue reading
Mike Smith is a buffoon.....every time he opens his mouth it’s a big red flag...he should stick to creaming butter at the York Butter Factory with his developer mates.. Money Laundering, Mortgage Fraud, Trader BBS Rate Scandals......problems that Mike Smith, David Murray, Ralph Norris, Gail Kelly, Cameron Clyne, happily embraced as the "norm."   http://www.afr.com/technology/mike-smiths-york-butter-factory-and-mirvac-to-build-startup-hubs-nationwide-20170716-gxce39   Banks claim Hitler persecution as NAB discovers laundering holes By Houses and Holes in Australian banks at 5:49 am on November 15, 2017 | 12 comments   https://www.macrobusiness.com.au/2017/11/banks-claim-hitler-persecution-as-nab-discovers-laundering-holes/ Via AFR: Former ANZ chief executive Mike Smith says the big four banks could have handled recent political attacks better, saying whenever governments want “mob interest” they always turn on the banks. “It’s being used as political capital … when you want to get mob interest, you turn on the banks. Hitler did it,” Mr Smith said after speaking at the UBS Australasia conference in Sydney on...
Last modified on
Hits: 354 0 Comments
Rate this blog entry:
Continue reading
THE IMPORTANCE OF A ROYAL COMMISSION INTO BANKS AND REGULATORS  WHY THE PC IS A WASTE OF TIME AND MONEY   Bob Katter was steadfastly for a Royal Commission and heading into the last election!!!   He sang its praises and hopped on the BFCSA Consumer bandwagon.  Very disappointingly, the moment he came into power as an elected MP, he changed his tune to a stupid PC which we all agree is a hopeless washed out version.   The Greens, Hanson, Katter and Nats DITTO.  Like all parrots, they promised the same PRIOR to last election and then when election was over, the Nutters Alliance all jumped ship and started suggesting the watered down version of a Parliamentary Commission. NATs, PHON and Katter all reneged after they entered Parliament. They then started singing on song suggesting a watered down PC and some consumers fell for this ruse, but not any more!  So much for...
Last modified on
Hits: 472 0 Comments
Rate this blog entry:
Continue reading
The cross bench will use its balance of power in the federal parliament to push for a royal commission into banks, independent MP Bob Katter says. We need a Royal Commission into the Banking system.  What nonsense is this coming from Bob Katter?  He has steadfastly FOUGHT AGAINST a Royal Commission.  This Katter Commi of Inquiry is still “Just another bloody Inquiry.” Bob, just please STOP trying to filibuster and grab media attention using the bank victims as pawns.  You are no better than George.  Best if you tell the long-suffering public the TRUTH!!!  We all need a proper Royal Commission into the Banking system and one that includes the Regulators!   http://www.sbs.com.au/news/article/2017/11/12/crossbench-back-bank-royal-commission Crossbench to back bank royal commission   Independent MP Bob Katter says the cross bench will move immediately on a royal commission into banks following the resignation of Liberal MP John Alexander. Mr Alexander resigned on Saturday after...
Last modified on
Hits: 294 0 Comments
Rate this blog entry:
Continue reading
Corporate Lobbying in Australia: a billion dollar business     Unconventional Economist in Australian Politics   at 12:15 am on November 9, 2017   By Leith van Onselen https://www.michaelwest.com.au/corporate-lobbying-a-billion-dollar-business/   In case you missed it, independent Investigative Journalist, Michael West, has released a ripper new report on corporate lobbying in Australia, which was commissioned by GetUp!. Below are the key points from the investigation: The analysis covered the financial statements of 20 business peak bodies. Together, their revenue surpassed $1.94 billion over the past three years. Besides funding advocacy via their peak bodies, large corporations also have “in-house” government relations capabilities and communications teams whose role is to effect political outcomes. Many large corporations also hire specialist government relations consultancy firms to lobby. This spending may sometimes be claimed as tax deductible. Membership of business and professional associations is tax deductible. Our analysis of 20 peak bodies is by no means...
Last modified on
Hits: 313 0 Comments
Rate this blog entry:
0
Continue reading